Leptin and Ghrelin For Weight Loss
The statistics of people suffering from morbid obesity is at an all-time high. There is intensive research on understanding the subject concerning multiple neurotransmitters and hormones having a major influence on our energy.
In obese test subjects, there is an increase in the circulating level of the anorexigenic hormone leptin. However, there is a decrease in the levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Obese patients tend to be leptin-resistant.
But the way that both ghrelin and leptin systems are contributing to the maintenance or growth of obesity isn’t fully clear. We are doing this review to provide background details on these hormones.
It is to better understand their roles in body weight + food intake in human beings and their action mechanism. It will help you get a better idea and a wider understanding of its role in combating weight loss.
What Are Leptin and Ghrelin?
Both leptin and ghrelin consist of two hormones that possess a major influence on energy balance. Here, leptin acts as a mediator for regulating energy balance in the long-run, causing suppressing food intake leading to weight loss. On the other hand, ghrelin acts as a quick-acting hormone that seemingly plays a role in initiating your meal.
The fat cells are responsible for producing leptin. This satiety hormone does an excellent job of reducing appetite, causing people to feel full. This signalling hormone communicates with your hypothalamus. It gives the message of sufficient fat storage in your body to your brain, preventing overeating. Leptin levels are quite high in overweight people.
Ghrelin is a hunger hormone that creeps in when the stomach is empty. It sends a message to your brain’s hypothalamus asking you to eat.
Before you eat, the ghrelin levels are extremely high and the lowest after your meal. The fasting levels of ghrelin are lower in overweight people compared to people of normal weight. Ghrelin also decreases a little after obese patients eat.
How Leptin and Ghrelin Tackles Weight Loss
Here we will look at the relationship ratio between leptin and ghrelin and meals with multiple macronutrient contents in patients (men) with distinct nutritional status.
Hormones that influence satiety and hunger play a major role in regulating your body’s energy balance. Ghrelin consists of a peptide, which plays a big role in regulating appetite on a short-term basis. On the other hand, leptin controls energy balance on a long-term basis as a satiety hormone.
The conduct of this study is for the sole aim of evaluating the leptin and ghrelin ratio during a fasting state, a meal intake with several macronutrient contents, and also assessing the differences between overweight men and normal body weight.
The research consists of two groups with 46 adult men from ages 21-58 who are perfectly healthy. Here, 23 of them have normal body weight, while the other 23 are overweight. In this crossover study, the participants received isocaloric meals with over 450 Kcal with varying macronutrient contents.
The first group got the normal-carbohydrate (NC) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals. The leptin/ghrelin ratio levels are calculated from the serum concentrations of total ghrelin and leptin during a fasting state and after 240, 180, 120, 60, and 30 minutes after meal intake.
The ratio of leptin and ghrelin was increasingly higher in men with obesity than those with normal body weight during a fasting state. There was a trend observation towards an increased ratio value of leptin and ghrelin from 60 minutes after the intake of HC meal compared to the HF- and NC- meals in the participants with normal body weight.
However, there weren’t any significant differences in overweight men based on the meal type. The study observed a notable different postprandial ratio of leptin and ghrelin in overweight and normal body weight men.
The study results suggest that a greater satiety feeling tends to come with men with normal body weight during meal intake of high-carbohydrate. But it isn’t the same with obese patients.
Understanding Leptin In Weight Loss
Adipose fat tissue helps create leptin, and it secretes inside the circulatory system. It goes on to travel towards the hypothalamus. You will eat a lesser amount of food because leptin notifies the hypothalamus of excess fat storage. It also helps in increasing your metabolic rate, which is a brownie point in losing weight.
The more fat your body possesses, the greater will be the level of leptin. Your body will also witness an increase in your metabolic rate when there is lesser consumption of food. Conversely, if you have less fat in your body, then lesser will be the level of leptin, causing more hunger. So, for weight loss, you will require more leptin.
Understanding Ghrelin In Weight Loss
Your stomach forms ghrelin when it is empty. Ghrelin also goes inside the blood circulation like leptin, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and ends up in your hypothalamus. Here, it will tell you that you are hungry. It is high before eating but lower after you finish eating.
If you are interested in losing weight, you should want lesser ghrelin, so you don’t feel hungry. But if you are a skinny person, then the opposite will follow, i.e., wanting more ghrelin.
Method and Results
According to recent research, over 160 overweight and obese people (both men and women). With a 31.1 kg/m2 BMI average on a diet with calorie restriction for over eight weeks.
The diet consisted of 500 to 600 calories per day, i.e., 30% less than the participants’ energy expenditure. There was 30% fat, 55% carbohydrates, and 15% calories from protein. There were no changes in physical activities and just lesser food.
The researchers started measuring the waist girths, body weight, and body fat. Plus, the researchers also took blood samples.
There was a proper undertaking of measures before the diet (week 0), after the diet (week 8), and six months later at (32 weeks). After dieting for eight weeks, the test subjects lost 5% of average body weight. On average, the men lost over 5.9%, and women lost about 4.5%. All of them lost an average body fat of 1.6% and waistlines up to 4.1cm.
Summing It Up!
Both hormones help in regulating your hunger and appetite. It also regulates the homeostasis and keeps you sufficiently fed.
When you are trying to lose weight, your body will respond by changing the levels of hormones so that you become hungrier. There are some ups and downs with the relationship between leptin and ghrelin. It is complicated and poses a challenge to many people that are trying to lose weight.